HINDI VERBS 6 (Past Imperfective Tense (“Used to”)

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The past imperfective tense is the “used to” tense. For example: “I used to go to school”,“I used to work as an accountant”, “I used to play drums”, “I used to live in India”, “I used to have a dog”.To make thepast imperfective tense you will have to:* Take a verb in its infinitive/dictionary form that usually ends in “-na”;* Remove the ending “-na” and add the ending “-ta”;* Add an auxiliary/helping verb “to be” in its past form (था – tha – was);Look at this comparison of present simple and past imperfective:Present simple tense: “मैं काम करता हूँ” (Main kaam kartaa hoon – I work)Past imperfective tense: “मैं काम करता था” (Main kaam kartaa thaa – I used to work). The difference is, we use “था” (tha – was, m) instead of “हूँ” (hoon – am, f/m). Subject pronoun Verb Helping verb “to be” Complete phrase मैंMainI कर + ताkar + taadid थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं करता था।Main kartaa thaa.I used to do. मैंMain I पढ़ + ताparh + taa read थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं पढ़ता था।Main parhtaa thaa.I used to read. मैं MainI जा + ताjaa  + taawent थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं जाता था।Main jaataa thaa.I used to go. मैंMainI सुन + ता sun + taalistened थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं सुनता था।Main suntaa thaa.I used to listen. मैंMainI रह + ता rah + taalived थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं रहता था।Main rahtaa thaa.I used to live. मैंMainI गा + ताgaa + taasang थाthaa(was, m, sg) मैं गाता था।Main gaataa thaa.I used to sing. मैंMainI बना + ताbanaa + taamade था thaa(was, m, sg) मैं बनाता था।Main banaataa thaa.I used to make. मैंMainI सोच + ता soch + taathought था thaa(was, m, sg) मैं सोचता था।Main sochtaa thaa.I used to think. (This chart shows an example of what does the imperfective past tense (“used to”) look like in Hindi. If you wonder what does “कर + ता” mean and what is the plus for, it is to show how the verb has changed from its dictionary form. Let’s say you find a Hindi verb “करना” (karnaa – to do) in the dictionary in its infinitive form that ends with “-na” and you want to change it into the past imperfective tense, first thing you need to do is to drop the ending “-na” and add “-ta” which is the suffix for the present simple and past tense imperfective tense. Then, you add “tha” which is the verb “hona” (to be) in its past tense form and is used as a helping verb such as the English “have”.)1. In this chart you will be introduced to all the forms of the auxiliary verb “to be” in its past tense. As the auxiliary verb “to be” changes depending on the gender and number and is an irregular verb, it is important to first learn its past forms. मैं था main thaa I was (m) तू था too thaa You were (m, cas.) तुम/आप थे tum/aap the You were (m, pol.) यह/वह था yah/vah thaa He was हम थे ham the We were (m) तुम/आप थे tum/aap the You were (m, pol.) ये/वे थे ye/ve the They were (m) मैं थी main thee I was (f) तू थी too thee You were (f, cas.) तुम/आप थीं tum/aap theen You were (f, pol.) यह/वह थी yah/vah thee She was हम थीं ham theen We were (f) तुम/आप थीं tum/aap theen You were (f, pl) ये/वे थीं ye/ve theen They were (f) (The blue shaded part of the table – masculine, the reddish – feminine gender.)2. Now we can make short sentences that express the past imperative tense. For example: सलमान मुंबई में रहता था।Salmaan Mumbai men rahtaa thaa.Salman used to live in Mumbai. राज मोडल का काम करता था।Raaj modal kaa kaam kartaa thaa.Raj used to be a model. अजय पहले गाड़ी चलाता था।Ajay pahle gaaDee chalaataa thaa.Before Ajay used to drive a car. मेरे पिता काम से जल्दी आते थे।Mere pitaa kaam se jaldee aate the.My father used to come from work fast. नीतू बचपन में बहुत रोती थी।Neetu bachpan men bahut rotee thee.As a child, Neetu used to cry a lot. मेरी बहिन बहुत अच्छा खाना बनाती थी।Meree bahin bahut achchhaa khaanaa banaatee thee.My sister used to make a very good food. मैं मंदिर रोज़ जाती थी।Main mandir roz jaatee thee.I used to go to the temple every day. मेरा भाई स्कूल से हमेशा देर आता था।Meraa bhaaii, skool se hameshaa der aataa thaa.My brother used to come from school always late. हम तब दिल्ली में रहते थे।Ham tab Dillee men rahte the.We used to live in Delhi then. मेरे दादाजी और नानाजी दोनों पहले गाँव में रहते थे।Mere daadaajee aur naanaajee donon pahle gaanv men rahte the.My parental grandfather and maternal grandfather, both used to live in a village before. हम औरतें सारा ज़िंदगी घर में ही बिताती थीं।Ham auraten saaraa zindagee ghar men hee bitaatee theen.We women used to spend all life at home. पहले औरतें रोज़ साड़ी पहनती थीं।Pahle auraten roz saaDee pahantee theen.Before women used to wear saris every day. 3. You can also use “था/थी/थे/थीं” (thaa/thee/the/then–was/were) alone in sentences like: कल मेरा जन्मदिन था।Kal meraa janmdin thaa.It was my birthday yesterday. कल राजदीप बीमार थी।Kal Rajdeep beemaar thee.Yesterday Rajdeep was ill. कल मौसम अच्छा था।Kal mausam achchhaa thaa.Yesterday the weather was good. कल वाला चलचित्र बहुत मजेदार था।Kal vaalaa chalchitr bahut mazedaar thaa.Yesterday’s movie was very funny. कल शाम आप कहाँ पर थे?Kal sham aap kahaan par the?Where were you yesterday night? क्या वह यहाँ थी?Kyaa vah yahan thee?Was she here? क्या तुम भी उस मेले पर थीं? Kyaa tum bhee us mele par theen?Where you also at that fair? कल मंगलवार था।Kal mangalvaar thaa.Yesterday was Tuesday. उस दिन बहुत  काम था।Us din bahut kaam thaa.That day there was a lot of work. उसकी बीवी बहुत सुन्दर थी।Uskee beevee bahut sundar thee.His wife was very beautiful. उसके बच्चे बहुत शैतान थे।Uske bacche bahut shaitaan the.His children were very naughty. मेरे जूते बिलकुल नए थे।Mere joote bilkul naye the.My shoes were brand new. Madhubani/tribal art inspired painting “Fish”                                                            4.  EXERCISE: a) Match the words and make your own sentences. Try to use the right form of auxiliary verb “था/थी/थे/थीं” for the masculine and feminine. Example: “आप गरीब थे” (Aap gareeb the. – You were poor.) कलkalyesterday जवानjavaanyoung थाthaawas (m., sg.) आपaapyou (m,f, pl) गरीबgareebpoor थी theewas (f., sg) वहvahhe, she मोटाmoTaafat थेthewere (m., pl.) गाड़ी (f)gaaDeecar स्वादिष्टsvaadiShttasty थीं theenwere (f.,pl) खाना (m)khaanaafood दिलचस्पdilchaspinteresting बात (f)baataffair; matter मज़ेदारmazedaarfunny; fun चलचित्र (m)chalchitrmovie नया nayaanew मैं mainI शुक्रवार (m)shukrvaarFriday EXTRAS: How to say: “USED TO BE” (Hotaa thaa) होता था Hotaa thaa Used to be (masc., sing.) होती थी Hotee thee Used to be (fem., sing.) होते थे Hote the Used to be (masc., plur.) होती थीं Hotee theen Used to be (fem., plur.) अर्जुन खुश होता था। Arjun khush hotaa thaa. Arjun used to be happy. मीना खुश होती थी। Meenaa khush hotee thee. Meenaa used to be happy. अर्जुन और दानेश खुश होते थे। Arjun aur Danesh khush hote the. Arjun and Danesh used to be happy. मीना और सीता  खुश होती थीं। Meenaa aur Seetaa khush hotee theen. Meenaa and Seetaa used to be happy. (This chart shows you how to use: “Used to be”. Pay attention to the changes of the suffix “-ta”, “-tee”, “-te” and “-tee”).b) Match the mixed up words and make sentences. Try to use the right form of auxiliary verb “था/थी/थे/थीं” for the masculine and feminine. Example: “मैं मुंबई में रहता था” (Main Mumbai men rahtaa thaa – I used to live in Mumbai.), “वह बहुत हँसती थी”(Vah bahut hanstee thee – She used to laugh a lot.) मैंMainI रहना rahnaato live मुंबई मेंMumbai menin Mumbai था thaawas, m तुमTumYou जानाjaanaato go दफ्तरdaftar office थीtheewas, f आपAapYou (pl) चलानाchalaanaato drive गाड़ीgaaDeecar थेthewere, m यहYahHe/she देखनाdekhnaato watch; look टीवीteeveeTV थीं theenwere, f हमHamWe खेलनाkhelnaato play ताशtaashplaying cards वेVeThey खानाkhaanaato eat खानाkhaanaafood पढ़नाparhnaa to read किताबेंkitaabenbooks पीनाpeenaato drink चाय chaaytea करनाkarnaato do शोपिंग shopingshopping होनाhonaato be बीमार beemaarill कमानाkamaanaa to earn पैसेpaisemoney हँसनाhansnaato laugh बहुत bahutvery करनाkarnaato do काम kaamwork

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